Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia

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Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia[1]

1899[3][4]–1911[2]


Flag

Anthem
"God Save the Queen
Capital Kalomo (1899-1907), Livingstone (1907-1911)[5]
Languages English (official)
Nyanja, Bemba, Tonga and Lozi widely spoken
Government Colonial administration
British monarchy
 •  1899–1901 Victoria of the United Kingdom
 •  1901–1910 Edward VII of the United Kingdom
 •  1910-1911 George V of the United Kingdom
Administrator[6]
 •  1900–1907 (first) Robert Thorne Coryndon
 •  1907-1908 Robert Edward Codrington
 •  1909-1911 (last) Lawrence Aubrey Wallace
Historical era late 19th & early 20th century
 •  Established 28 November 1899[3][4]
 •  Amalgamated with North-Eastern Rhodesia as Northern Rhodesia[7]
17 August 1911[2]
Currency Southern Rhodesian pound
Today part of  Zambia

Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia was a British protectorate in south central Africa formed in 1899.[8] It encompassed North-Western Rhodesia and Barotseland.

The protectorate was administered under charter by the British South Africa Company. It was the largest of what were colloquially referred to as the three Rhodesian protectorates,[9] the other two being Southern Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia. It was amalgamated with North-Eastern Rhodesia, another territory administered by the British South Africa Company, to form Northern Rhodesia in 1911.[10]

History

In 1890 the British South Africa Company signed a treaty with King Lewanika of the Barotse, the most powerful traditional ruler in the Barotse territory.[11] King Lewanika signed the treaty because he was fearful of attack from the Portuguese (in Angola to the west) and from the Ndebele (Matabele) to the east and so wished to have British protection.[12]

The treaty did not confer protectorate status on the territory, as only the British government could confer that status. Nonetheless, the charter gave the Barotse territory protection while conferring on the Company rights over the territory's minerals as well as trading rights.[13]

In 1897 Robert Coryndon, private secretary to Cecil Rhodes, was sent by Rhodes to be the British South Africa Company representative in Barotseland.[14] In October 1897 he reached King Lewanika's capital, Lealui, where he was given a cool reception.[15] Lewanika could not initially accept that Coryndon could represent both the British South Africa Company and the United Kingdom government.

However, in November 1899 Queen Victoria signed the Barotziland–North Western Rhodesia Order in Council, 1899. This Order amalgamated what was North-Eastern Rhodesia with Barotseland and established over the whole territory a protectorate named Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia.[16][17] Protectorate status was welcomed by King Lewanika.[18]

Under the Order a regime for the Company's governance of the new protectorate was established. The new protectorate was administered by an Administrator appointed by the High Commissioner for South Africa.[19] The High Commissioner legislated by proclamation for the protectorate.[20] The protectorate was divided into nine administrative districts.[21]

In September 1900 Coryndon was appointed as the first Administrator. He held this post until 1907.[22] Coryndon was replaced by Robert Codrington, who died within a year of taking up office as Administrator.[23] The last person to serve as Administrator was Lawrence Aubrey Wallace.[24] The capital was initially at Kalomo, and moved in 1907 to Livingstone.

When the protectorate was amalgamated with North-Eastern Rhodesia to form Northern Rhodesia, the Administrator of Northern Rhodesia took over the functions that had been carried out by the Administorator of Barotziland–North Western Rhodesia.[25]

Laws

The laws of England applied to the protectorate, as far as local circumstances permitted.[26] In actions between natives, native law and custom prevailed, save so far as the same were incompatible with the due exercise of His Britanic Majesty's power and jurisdiction.[27] The High Commissioner was empowered to provide for the administration of justice.[28] An Administrator's Court was established, consisting of three judges, of whom the Administrator was president, and Magistrates' Courts were also set up.[29] Decisions of these Courts could be appealed to the Administrator's Court. Appeals from the Protectorate Courts could be made to the Supreme Court of Cape Colony and from there to the Privy Council in the United Kingdom.[30]

See also

References

  1. In the official name, as promulgated under the Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia Order in Council, 1899, the dash between "Barotziland" and "North-Western" was a long dash.
  2. Zambia - Justice and the Rule of Law By Choolwe Beyani; published on the website of the Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa on 27 August 2013 and stating that 17 August 1911 was the commencement date for the Northern Rhodesia Order in Council, 1911.
  3. Barotziland North-Western Rhodesia Order in Council,1899.
  4. The Map of Africa by Treaty by Sir E. Hertslet.
  5. Brief History of the Establishment of the Barotse Park in 1898, Special Report published in the Barotse Post on 8 May 2015.
  6. Administrator appointed pursuant to Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia Order in Council, 1899, S.R.O. 1901 No. 567.
  7. Proclamation by His Excellency the High Commissioner of South Africa, Northern Rhodesia No 1 of 1911 and made on 17 August 1911; [1]
  8. Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia Order in Council, 1899, S.R.O. 1901 No. 567.
  9. Encyclopedia of the Laws of England, Volume XIII; Editors: A. Wood Renton, Esq., Puisne Justice of the Supreme Court of Ceylon and Max. A. Robertson, Esq., of the Inner Temple and the Midland Circuit, Barrister-at-Law; Edinburgh; 1 November 1908.
  10. Northern Rhodesia Order in Council, 1911, S.R.O. 1911 No. 438, p. 85.
  11. Encyclopedia Britannica article on Lewanika published on the Britannica website
  12. Encyclopedia Britannica article on Lewanika published on the Britannica website
  13. Encyclopedia Britannica article on Lewanika published on the Britannica website
  14. Bodleian Papers.
  15. The Elites of Barotseland, 1878-1969 - A Political History of Zambia's Western Province; by Gerald L. Caplan. Berkeley.
  16. Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia Order in Council, 1899, S.R.O. 1901 No. 567.
  17. Commonwealth and Colonial Law by Kenneth Roberts-Wray, London, Stevens, 1966. P. 753.
  18. The Elites of Barotseland, 1878-1969 - A Political History of Zambia's Western Province; by Gerald L. Caplan. Berkeley.
  19. Encyclopedia of the Laws of England, Volume XIII; Editors: A. Wood Renton, Esq., Puisne Justice of the Supreme Court of Ceylon and Max. A. Robertson, Esq., of the Inner Temple and the Midland Circuit, Barrister-at-Law; Edinburgh; 1 November 1908.
  20. Encyclopedia of the Laws of England, Volume XIII; Editors: A. Wood Renton, Esq., Puisne Justice of the Supreme Court of Ceylon and Max. A. Robertson, Esq., of the Inner Temple and the Midland Circuit, Barrister-at-Law; Edinburgh; 1 November 1908.
  21. Encyclopedia of the Laws of England, Volume XIII; Editors: A. Wood Renton, Esq., Puisne Justice of the Supreme Court of Ceylon and Max. A. Robertson, Esq., of the Inner Temple and the Midland Circuit, Barrister-at-Law; Edinburgh; 1 November 1908.
  22. Ben Cahoon, publication appearing on www.worldstatesmen.org/Zambia.html
  23. Ben Cahoon, publication appearing on www.worldstatesmen.org/Zambia.html
  24. Ben Cahoon, publication appearing on www.worldstatesmen.org/Zambia.html
  25. Northern Rhodesia Order in Council, 1911.
  26. Article 16 of the Order in Council of 1899.
  27. Sec. 6 of Proclamation No. 6 of 1905.
  28. Northern Rhodesia Order in Council, 1911.
  29. Proclamation No. 6 of 1905.
  30. Encyclopedia of the Laws of England, Volume XIII; editors: A. Wood Renton, Esq., Puisne Justice of the Supreme Court of Ceylon and Max. A. Robertson, Esq., of the Inner Temple and the Midland Circuit, Barrister-at-Law; Edinburgh; 1 November 1908.

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