Africa

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Africa
Africa (orthographic projection).svg
Area 30,370,000 km2 (11,730,000 sq mi), 2nd
Population 1.2 billion[1] (2016, 2nd)
Population density 36.4/km2 (94/sq mi)
Demonym African
Countries 54 (and 2 disputed)
Dependencies
Languages 1250-3000 native languages
Time zones UTC-1 to UTC+4
Largest cities List of cities in Africa
Nigeria Lagos
Egypt Cairo
Democratic Republic of the Congo Kinshasa
South Africa Johannesburg
Sudan Khartoum
Tanzania Dar es Salaam
Egypt Alexandria
Ivory Coast Abidjan
Algeria Algiers
Nigeria Kano
Morocco Casablanca
Nigeria Ibadan
Kenya Nairobi
Nigeria Abuja
Map of Africa

Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent. At about 30.3 million km² (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20.4 % of its total land area.[2] With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos. It contains 54 fully recognized sovereign states (countries), nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition.

Africa's population is the youngest amongst all the continents;[3][4] the median age in 2012 was 19.7, when the worldwide median age was 30.4.[5] Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, and Nigeria by population. Africa, particularly central Eastern Africa, is widely accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade (great apes), as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors, as well as later ones that have been dated to around seven million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, Homo habilis and Homo ergaster – with the earliest Homo sapiens (modern human) found in Ethiopia being dated to circa 200,000 years ago.[6] Africa straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas; it is the only continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones.[7]

Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities, cultures and languages. In the late 19th century European countries colonized most of Africa. Africa also varies greatly with regard to environments, economics, historical ties and government systems. However, most present states in Africa originate from a process of decolonization in the 20th century.

Geography

Satellite photo of Africa. The Sahara Desert in the north can be clearly seen.
A composite satellite image of Africa (centre) with North America (left) and Eurasia (right), to scale

Africa is the largest of the three great southward projections from the largest landmass of the Earth. Separated from Europe by the Mediterranean Sea, it is joined to Asia at its northeast extremity by the Isthmus of Suez (transected by the Suez Canal), 163 km (101 mi) wide.[8] (Geopolitically, Egypt's Sinai Peninsula east of the Suez Canal is often considered part of Africa, as well.)[9]

From the most northerly point, Ras ben Sakka in Tunisia (37°21' N), to the most southerly point, Cape Agulhas in South Africa (34°51'15" S), is a distance of approximately 8,000 km (5,000 mi);[10] from Cape Verde, 17°33'22" W, the westernmost point, to Ras Hafun in Somalia, 51°27'52" E, the most easterly projection, is a distance of approximately 7,400 km (4,600 mi).[11] The coastline is 26,000 km (16,000 mi) long, and the absence of deep indentations of the shore is illustrated by the fact that Europe, which covers only 10,400,000 km2 (4,000,000 sq mi) – about a third of the surface of Africa – has a coastline of 32,000 km (20,000 mi).[11]

Africa's largest country is Algeria, and its smallest country is Seychelles, an archipelago off the east coast.[12] The smallest nation on the continental mainland is The Gambia.

Geologically, Africa includes the Arabian Peninsula; the Zagros Mountains of Iran and the Anatolian Plateau of Turkey mark where the African Plate collided with Eurasia. The Afrotropic ecozone and the Saharo-Arabian desert to its north unite the region biogeographically, and the Afro-Asiatic language family unites the north linguistically.

Climate

Africa map of Köppen climate classification

The climate of Africa ranges from tropical to subarctic on its highest peaks. Its northern half is primarily desert, or arid, while its central and southern areas contain both savanna plains and dense jungle (rainforest) regions. In between, there is a convergence, where vegetation patterns such as sahel and steppe dominate. Africa is the hottest continent on earth and 60% of the entire land surface consists of drylands and deserts.[13] The record for the highest-ever recorded temperature, in Libya in 1922 (58 °C (136 °F)), was discredited in 2013.[14][15]

Fauna

Savanna at Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania

Africa boasts perhaps the world's largest combination of density and "range of freedom" of wild animal populations and diversity, with wild populations of large carnivores (such as lions, hyenas, and cheetahs) and herbivores (such as buffalo, elephants, camels, and giraffes) ranging freely on primarily open non-private plains. It is also home to a variety of "jungle" animals including snakes and primates and aquatic life such as crocodiles and amphibians. In addition, Africa has the largest number of megafauna species, as it was least affected by the extinction of the Pleistocene megafauna.

Ecology and biodiversity

Tropical beach in Trou-aux-Biches, Mauritius

Africa has over 3,000 protected areas, with 198 marine protected areas, 50 biosphere reserves, and 80 wetlands reserves. Significant habitat destruction, increases in human population and poaching are reducing Africa's biological diversity and arable land. Human encroachment, civil unrest and the introduction of non-native species threaten biodiversity in Africa. This has been exacerbated by administrative problems, inadequate personnel and funding problems.[13]

Deforestation is affecting Africa at twice the world rate, according to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).[16] According to the University of Pennsylvania African Studies Center, 31% of Africa's pasture lands and 19% of its forests and woodlands are classified as degraded, and Africa is losing over four million hectares of forest per year, which is twice the average deforestation rate for the rest of the world.[13] Some sources claim that approximately 90% of the original, virgin forests in West Africa have been destroyed.[17] Over 90% of Madagascar's original forests have been destroyed since the arrival of humans 2000 years ago.[18] About 65% of Africa's agricultural land suffers from soil degradation.[19]

Religion

Africans profess a wide variety of religious beliefs, and statistics on religious affiliation are difficult to come by since they are often a sensitive a topic for governments with mixed religious populations.[20][21] According to the World Book Encyclopedia, Islam is the largest religion in Africa, followed by Christianity. According to Encyclopedia Britannica, 45% of the population are Christians, 40% are Muslims, and 10% follow traditional religions. A small number of Africans are Hindu, Buddhist, Confucianist, Bahá'í Faith, or Jewish. There is also a minority of Africans who are irreligious.

References

  1. Kaneda, Toshiko; Bietsch, Kristin (2016). "2013 World Population Data Sheet" (PDF). www.prb.org. Population Reference Bureau. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  2. Sayre, April Pulley (1999), Africa, Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN 0-7613-1367-2.
  3. Washington Post
  4. Harry, Njideka U. (11 September 2013). "African Youth, Innovation and the Changing Society". Huffington Post. 
  5. ABDOULIE JANNEH (April 2012). "item,4 of the provisional agenda - General debate on national experience in population matters: adolescents and youth" (PDF). UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR AFRICA. Retrieved 15 December 2015. 
  6. Homo sapiens: University of Utah News Release: 16 February 2005 Template:Webarchive
  7. Visual Geography. "Africa. General info". Retrieved 24 November 2007. 
  8. Drysdale, Alasdair and Gerald H. Blake. (1985) The Middle East and North Africa, Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-19-503538-0
  9. "Atlas - Xpeditions @ nationalgeographic.com". National Geographic Society. 2003. Archived from the original on 3 March 2009. Retrieved 1 March 2009. 
  10. Lewin, Evans. (1924) Africa, Clarendon press
  11. 11.0 11.1 (1998) Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary (Index), Merriam-Webster, pp. 10–11. ISBN 0-87779-546-0
  12. Hoare, Ben. (2002) The Kingfisher A-Z Encyclopedia, Kingfisher Publications. p. 11. ISBN 0-7534-5569-2
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 "Africa: Environmental Atlas, 06/17/08." African Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania. Accessed June 2011.
  14. El Fadli, KI; et al. (September 2012). "World Meteorological Organization Assessment of the Purported World Record 58°C Temperature Extreme at El Azizia, Libya (13 September 1922)". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 94 (2): 199. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00093.1.  (The 136 °F (57.8 °C), claimed by 'Aziziya, Libya, on 13 September 1922, has been officially deemed invalid by the World Meteorological Organization.)
  15. "World Meteorological Organization World Weather / Climate Extremes Archive". Archived from the original on 4 January 2013. Retrieved 10 January 2013. 
  16. Deforestation reaches worrying level – UN Template:Webarchive. AfricaNews. 11 June 2008
  17. Forests and deforestation in Africa – the wasting of an immense resource Template:Webarchive. afrol News
  18. Template:NatGeo ecoregion
  19. "Nature laid waste: The destruction of Africa", The Independent, 11 June 2008.
  20. "African Religion on the Internet", Stanford University
  21. Onishi, Normitsu (1 November 2001). "Rising Muslim Power in Africa Causing Unrest in Nigeria and Elsewhere". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 March 2009. 

Further reading

  • Asante, Molefi (2007). The History of Africa. USA: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-77139-0. 
  • Clark, J. Desmond (1970). The Prehistory of Africa. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-02069-2. 
  • Crowder, Michael (1978). The Story of Nigeria. London: Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-04947-9. 
  • Davidson, Basil (1966). The African Past: Chronicles from Antiquity to Modern Times. Harmondsworth: Penguin. OCLC 2016817. 
  • Gordon, April A.; Donald L. Gordon (1996). Understanding Contemporary Africa. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55587-547-3. 
  • Khapoya, Vincent B. (1998). The African experience: an introduction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-745852-3. 
  • Moore, Clark D., and Ann Dunbar (1968). Africa Yesterday and Today, in series, The George School Readings on Developing Lands. New York: Praeger Publishers.
  • Naipaul, V. S. The Masque of Africa: Glimpses of African Belief. Picador, 2010. ISBN 978-0-330-47205-0
  • Besenyő, János. Western Sahara (2009), free online PDF book, Publikon Publishers, Pécs, ISBN 978-963-88332-0-4, 2009
  • Wade, Lizzie (2015). "Drones and satellites spot lost civilizations in unlikely places". Science. doi:10.1126/science.aaa7864. 

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